Reasoning & Numerical Aptitude:

1)Last Year, there were 720 crimes committed in the ninth precinct. These crimes involved theft, rape, and drugs in the ration of 4:2:3, How many crimes involved drugs?

2)A unit price is a ratio that compares the price of an item to its unit of measurement. To determine which product is the better buy, calculate each one?s unit price. Which of these five boxes of Klean-O Detergent is the best buy?
a)Travel-size: Rs. 100 for 5 Kg.
b)Small: Rs. 200 for 11 KG.
c)Regular: Rs. 400 for 22 Kg.
d)Large: Rs. 700 for 40 Kg.

3)Rimmy pulse rate is 19 beats every 15 seconds. What is her rate in beats per minute?

4)If you write down all the numbers from 1 to 100, then how many times do you write 3?

5)The total number of digits used in numbering the pages of a book having 366 pages is

6)In a garden, there are 10 rows and 12 coloumns of mango trees. The distance between two trees is 2 meters and a distance of one meter is left from all sides of the boundary of the garden. The length of the garden is
a)20 m

7)A farmer built a fence around his square plot. He used 27 fence poles on each side of the square. How many poles did he need altogether?
d)None of these

8)An enterprising businessman earns an income of Re.1 on the first day of his business. On every subsequent day, he earns on income which is just double of that made on the previous day. One the 10th day of business, his income is
a)Rs. 29
b)Rs. 210
c)Rs. 10
d)Rs. 102

9)In a family, the father took ¼ of the cake and he had 3 times as much as each of the other members had. The total number of family members are

10)Three friends had dinner at a restaurant.When the bill was received, Amita Paid 2/3 as much as Veena paid and Veena paid 1/3 as much as Tanya paid. What fraction of the bill did Veena pay?

11)Find the number which when added to itself 13 times, gives 112.

12)A monkey climbs 30 feet at the beginning of each hour and rests for a while when he slips back 20 feet before he again starts climbing in the beginning of the next hour. If he begins his ascent at 8.00 a.m., at what time will he first touch a flag at 120 feet from the ground?
a)4 p.m.
b)5 p.m.
c)6 p.m.
d)None of these

13)In a city, 40% of the adults are illiterate while 85% of the children are literate. If the ratio of the adults to that of the children is 2:3,then what percent of the population is literate?

14)If every 2 out of 3 readymade shirts need alterations in the sleeves, and every 4 out of 5 need in the body, how many alterations will be required for 60 shirts?

15)If a clock takes seven seconds to strikes seven, how long will it take to strike ten?
a)7 seconds
b)9 seconds
c)10 seconds
d)None of these

Qns(16 – 19):
Mr and Mrs. Sharma have two children Asha and Shahsi.Shashi married Radha,daughter of Mrs. Mahajan. Suresh, son of Mrs.Mahajan marries Rita. Sonu and Rocky are born to Suresh and Rita. Uma and Sudha are thedaughters of Shashi and Radha.
16)What is the surname of Sonu?
d)None of these

17)How is Suresh related to Sudha?
b)maternal uncle

18)What is Sudha?s relation to Asha?

19)How is Sonu related to Mr. Mahajan?
d)none of these

20)Rita drives to the north of her place of stay at A and after traveling 25 km finds that she has driven in the wrong directions. She then turns to her right and travels 2 km and then she again turns to the right and drives straight another 25 km. How much distance has she now to cover to go back to the starting point?
a)25 km
d)40 km

21)Rana travels 10 km to the north, turns left and travels 4 km and then again turns right and covers another 5 km and then turns right and travels another 4 km. How far is he from the right starting point?
a)15 km
b)4 km
c)5 km
d)10 km

22)A taxi driver commenced his journey from a point and drove 10 km towards north and turned to his left and drove another 5 km. After waiting to meet a friend here, he turned to his right and continued to drive another 10 km. He has covered a distance of 25 km so far, but in which direction would he be now?

23)A tourist drives 10 km towards east and turns to the right hand and drives 3 km. Then he drives towards west (turning to his right) 3km. He then turns to his left and drives 2 km. Finally he turns to his right and travels 7 km. How far is he from his starting point and in which direction would he be?
a)10 km, East
b)9 km, North
c)8 km, West
d)5 km, West

24)Of the 30 Officers on traffic duty, 20% didn?t work on Friday. How many officers worked on Friday?

25)After running 1½ miles on Wednesday, a runner had covered 75% of her planned route. How many miles did she plan to run that day?

26)Mr. Rakesh makes his special blends of coffee by mixing espresso beans with Colombian beans in the ratio of 4 to 5. How many K.g. of espresso beans does he need to make 18 K.g. of his special blend?

27)A recipe calls for 3 cups of sugar and 8 cups of flour. If only 6 cups of flour are used, how many cups of sugar should be used?

28)The average of eight different numbers is 5. If 1 is added to the largest number, what is the resulting average of the eight numbers?

29)Lieutenant James made an average of 3 arrests per week for 4 weeks. How many arrests does she need to make in the fifth week to raise her average to 4 arrests per week?

30)The average of 3 unique numbers is 50. If the lowest number is 30, what is the sum of the other two numbers?

General Awareness:

31. India test-fired Agni III on__
(A) May 15, 2008
(B) May 17, 2008
(C) May 20, 2008
(D) May 7, 2008

32. Which one of the following countries is not included in the elite club which India joined after its successful test firing of Agni III__
(A) Russia
(B) U.S.A.
(C) U.K.
(D) France

33. M. Natrajan is?
(A) Scientific Advisor to the Defence Minister
(B) Chief Controller and Programme Director of Agni Missile System
(C) Scientific Advisor to the Prime Minister
(D) None of the above

34. Currently which one of the following organizations is celebrating its golden jubilee (year) ?

35. India and Malaysia held their joint naval exercise at?
(A) Andman island
(B) Nicobar island
(C) Lumut
(D) Kualalampur

36. SERB stands for?
(A) Social Enlightenment and Research Board
(B) Scientific And Engineering Research Board
(C) Scientists? and Engineers? Research Board
(D) Science and Engineering Research Board

37. CEP (Circular Error Probability) is associated with?
(A) Prithvi II
(B) Chandryan I
(C) Narco Analysis test conducted on Aarushis? alleged murderer
(D) The finalization of Indo-US Nuclear deal

38. The country which recently announced to have its own version of Star Wars?
(A) France
(B) Japan
(C) China
(D) North Korea

39. The Indian state which, in May 2008, launched Food Security Scheme?
(A) Andhra Pradesh
(B) Chhattisgarh
(C) Tamil Nadu
(D) Jammu & Kashmir

40. The most coveted award at the 61st Cannes Film Festival was received by?
(A) ?Hunger?
(B) Line of Passage
(C) ?The Class?
(D) Three Monkeys

41. The Winner of the Scripps National Spelling Bee Contest is?
(A) Ravi Kumar
(B) Sameer Mishra
(C) Kuljit Singh
(D) None of these

42. ?Travelling Through Conflict? is a book written by?
(A) Hamid Ansari
(B) Cherie Blair
(C) Balraj Krishna
(D) Salman Rushdie

43. According to the Global Peace Index released in May 2008, the most peaceful country on the earth is?
(A) New Zealand
(B) Norway
(C) Denmark
(D) Iceland

44. Which of the following was recently granted Navratna status to ?
(D) All the above

45. In terms of billionnaire population. Mumbai ranks?? at world level ?
(A) Sixth
(B) Fifth
(C) Fourth
(D) Seventh

46. According to a report, the number of Indians who have a problem of loud snoring during sleep is?
(A) 35 million
(B) 36 million
(C) 40 million
(D) 45 million

47. The government has planned to establish ???? universities of global standards across the country ?
(A) 10
(B) 14
(C) 20
(D) 16

48. The government has increased Minimum Support Price of?
(A) Wheat
(B) Paddy
(C) Cane
(D) None of these

49. India recently refused to accept the offer of funds/loans from World Bank for?
(A) Disaster management
(B) North-East projects
(C) Tiger protection
(D) None of the above

50. Yves Saint Laurent recently died. He was a?
(A) U.S.A. film director
(B) First man to go to Mars mission
(C) Renowned fashion designer
(D) An internationally renowned financial expert
Canara-Bank Quantitative and Reasoning Question Paper
Canara bank Placement papers

CANARA BANK Quantitative and Reasoning Questions and Answers with Explanation,CANARA BANK Latest Question Paper,CANARA BANK Solved Question Paper

1. A large field of 700 hectares is divided into two parts. The difference of the areas of the two parts is one-fifth of the average of the two areas. What is the area of the smaller part in hectares?

A. 225
B. 280
C. 300
D. 385
Ex: Let the areas of the two parts be
x and (700 – x)hectares = [x – (700 – x)]
= 1 / 5 x [x + (700 – x)/ 2]
= 2x – 700= 70
x = 385.

2. The speed of a boat in still water is 15 km/hr and the rate of current is 3 km/hr. The distance travelled downstream in 12 minutes is

A. 1.2 km
B. 1.8 km
C. 2.4 km
D. 3.6 km
Ex:Speed Downstream = (15 + 3) km/hr
= 18 km/hr.
Distance travelled =(18 x 12/60)hrs
= 3.6km.3.

3. Today is Thursday. The day after 59 days wil be?

A. Sunday
B. Monday
C. Tuesday
D. Wednesday
Ex:Every day of the week is repeated after 7 days hence after 56 days it would be Thursday again .And after 59 day it would be Sunday

4. Albert invested an amount of Rs.8000 in a fixed deposit scheme for 2 years at compound interest rate 5 p.c.p.a. How much amount will Albert get on maturity of the fixed deposit ?

A. Rs. 8600
B. Rs. 8620
C. Rs. 8840
D. Rs. 8820
= Rs.[8000 x 21/20×21/20]
= Rs.8820.

5. The difference between two numbers is 1365. When the larger number is divided by the smaller one, the quotient is 6 and the remainder is 15. The smaller number is

A. 240
B. 270
C. 295
D. 360
Ex:Let the smaller number be x.
Then, larger number = (1365 + x))
Therefore 1365 + x ?=?(6x+15
?=? 5x = 1350 ?=? x= 270.

6. A fruit seller sells mangoes at the rate of Rs.9 per kg and thereby loses 20%. At what price per kg, he should have sold them to make a profit of 5%?

A. Rs.11.81
B. Rs.12
C. Rs.12.25
D. Rs.12.31
Ex:85 : 9 = 105 : x
x= (9×105/80)
= Rs.11.81
Hence, S.p per Kg= Rs.11.81

7. A student finds the average of 10 positive integers. Each integer contains two digits. By mistake, the student interchanges the digits of one number say ba for ab. Due to this, the average becomes 1.8 less than the previous one. What is the difference between the two digits a and b?
8. Look at this series: 1000, 200, 40, … What number should come next?

Explanation: This is a simple division series. Each number is divided by 5.

9. How big will an angle of one and a half degree look through a glass that magnifies things three times?
A. 1 ½
B. 2 ½
C.3 ½
D. 4 ½
Ans: A. 1 ½ degrees
Explanation : The magnifying glass cannot increase the magnitude of an angle.

10. Rahul?s mother is the only daughter of Monika?s father. How is Monika?s husband related to Rahul?

A. Uncle
B. Father
C. Grandfather
D. Data inadequate

11. Four girls are sitting on a bench to be photographed. Shikha is to the left of Reena Manju is to the right of Reena. Rita is between Reena and Manju. Who would be second from the left in the photograph?

A. Reena
B. Shikha
C. Manju
D. Rita
E. A and B

12. DIRECTIONS : In this oddman out section we need choose the word or pair that different from remaining words or pairs.

Select the odd one out


13. Select the odd one out


14. After walking 6 km, I turned to the right and then walked 2 km. After then I turned to the left and walked 10 km. In the end, I was moving towards the North. From which direction did I start my journey?

Ans: B
Ex:The journey was started from the South.

15. Starting from the point X, Jayant walked 15 m towards west. He turned left and walked 20 m. He then turned left and walked 15 m. After this he turned to his right and walked 12 m. How far and in which directions is now Jayant from X?

A.32 m, South
B.47 m, East
C.42 m, North
D.27 m, South

Canara Bank Model Placement Paper

This Question paper contains questions on Reasoning,Numerical Aptitude and English Language.

Find the missing number in the following series out of four options.

1. 1, 2, 5, 7, 11,______,17
a. 12
b. 13
c. 14
d. 15

2. 1, 8, 27,____,125
a. 37
b. 47
c. 54
d. 64

3. 6, 12, 21, 33,____
a. 38
b. 40
c. 45
d. 48

4. 2, 20,____,110, 182
a. 56
b. 72
c. 90
d. 96

5. 81, 9, 64,____,49, 7
a. 8
b. 9
c. 10
d. 11

6. AGMS, agms, _______________
a. ABCD abcd
b. abcd ABCD
c. BHNT bhnt
d. bhnt BHNT

7. aa, bbb, cccc, ______________
a. ddd
b. ddddd
c. dddd

8. ACF acf G_______
a. IL gil
b. JL gil
c. IL gjl
d. LL gli

9. aB bB cD dD _________
a. ef
b. gH
c. fG
d. eF

10) In a certain coding system MOTHER is coded as PQWJHT, how will you code SISTER?

11) In a certain coding system PRICE is coded as SVNIL, how will you code COST?
a) F SXY

12) In a certain coding system FLOWER is written as SEXOMF, how will you code GARDEN?

13) In a certain coding system TRAIN is written as GIZRM, how will you code FIGURE?

14) Rajesh walks 7 km to the north then turns left and walks 3 km. Then takes another left and continue walking this time another 7 km forward. How much distance in km is he away from the starting point.
a) 10km
b) 6km
c) 3km
d) 2km

15) Balwant had 17 sheep. A storm in the village killed all but 7 sheep .How many was he left with?
a) 10
b) 6
c) 7
d) 9

16) What is the smallest number of ducks that can swim in this formation- two ducks in front of a duck two ducks behind a duck and a duck between two ducks?
a) 3
b) 5
c) 7
d) 9

17) What is the product of all the numbers in the dial of a telephone?
a) 1,58,480
b) 1,59,450
c) 1,59,480
d) None of those

18) A group of 1200 persons consisting of captains and soldiers is travelling in a train. For every 15 soldiers there is one captain. The number of captains in the group is
a) 85
b) 80
c) 75
d) 70

19) Aruna cut a cake into two halves and cuts one half into smaller pieces of equal size. Each of the small pieces is twenty grams in weight. If she has seven pieces of the cake in all with her, how heavy was the original cake?
a) 120 grams
b) 140 grams
c) 240 grams
d) 280 grams

20) First bunch of bananas has ¼ again as many bananas as a second bunch. If the second bunch has 3 bananas less than the first bunch, then the number of bananas in the first bunch is
a) 9
b) 10
c) 12
d) 15

21) At the end of a business conference the ten people present all shake hands with eachother once. How many handshakes will there be altogether?
a) 20
b) 45
c) 55
d) 90

22) A student got twice as many sums wrong as he got right. If he attempted 48 sums in all, how many did he solve correctly.
a) 12
b) 16
c) 18
d) 24

23) There were 28 people at last week?s board meeting. If the ratio of men to women was 4:3, how many women were at the meeting?
a) 16
b) 12
c) 7
d) 4

24) At a certain corporation, the ratio of clerical workers to executives is 7 to 2. If a combined total of 81 clerical workers and executive workers for that corporation, how many clerical workers are there?
a) 9
b) 14
c) 18
d) 63

Tick mark the right meaning of the word
25) Contempt
a) Love
b) Beauty
c) Call
d) Hate

26) Fame
a) Publicity
b) Hate
c) Pleasure
d) Renown

27) Notorious
a) immortal
b) popular
c) beautiful
d) infamous

28) Excel
a) do well
b) run
c) please
d) make well

29) Furtive
a) secretive
b) good
c) bad
d) smoke

30) conflagration
a) popularity
b) goy
c) great man
d) great fire
Canara-Bank Whole-Testpaper
Canara Bank Model Question Paper

Aptitude Questions:

1)A is 3 years older to B and 3 years younger to C, while B and D are twins. How many years older is C to D?

2)12 year old Manick is three times as old as his brother Rahul. How old will Manick be when he is twice as old as Rahul?
a)14 years
b)16 years
c)18 years
d)20 years.

3)A woman says, ?If you reverse my own age,the figures represent my husband?s age. He is, of course, senior to me and the difference between our ages is one-eleventh of their sum.? The woman?s age is
a)23 years
b)34 years
c)45 years
d)None of these

4)In a town, 65% people watched the news on television, 40% read a newspaper and 25% read a newspaper and watched the news on television also. What percent of the people neither watched the news on television nor read a newspaper?

5)Raj starts from his office facing west and walks 100 metres straight then takes a right turn and walks 100 metres. Further he takes General awareness and Aptitude test 15 a left turn and walks 50 metres. In which direction is Raj now from the starting point?

6)Mohan starts from his house and walks 4 km. straight. He then turns towards his right and walks 2 kms. He turns again to his right and walks 2 kms. If he is North West now, then in which direction did he start in the beginning?

7)A number consists of two digits. The digit at the ten?s place is two times the digit at the one?s place. The number, formed by reversing the digits is 27 less than the original number. Then the original number is

8)A number consists of two digits of which the ten?s digit exceeds the one?s digit by 6. The number itself is equal to ten times the sum of digits. Then the number is

9)A number consists of two digits. The digit at the ten?s place is two times the digit at the one?s place. The number formed by reversing the digits is 36 less than the original number. Then the original number is

10)A boy is now one-third as old as his father Twelve years hence he will be half as old as his father. Then the present age of the boy is
a)10 years
b)11 years
c)12 years
d)13 years

11)5 years ago, the age of a man was 7 time the age of his son. The age of the man will be 3 times the age of his son in five years from now. How old is the man now?
a)30 years
b)40 years
c)50 years
d)60 years

12)A said to B,? I am 15 years older than you. After 5 years my age will be double of your age.? Then the present age of A is
a)10 years
b)15 years
c)20 years
d)25 years

13)The present age of Ram is 20 years and of his father is 40 years. How many years ago the age of his father was three times of his age?
a)10 years
b)8 years
c)6 years
d)4 years

14) The age of Deepak and Vikas are in the ratio 7:5. Ten years hence, the ratio of their ages will be 9:7. Then the present age of Deepak is
a)20 years
b)25 years
c)30 years
d)35 years

15) A is 3 years younger than C but one year older than D. D is one year older than B but 4 years younger than C. C is 15 years old. What is the age of B in years?

English Language:

Read the following passage carefully and answer all questions given below it.

John Maynard Keynes, the trendiest dead economist of this apocalyptic moment, was the godfather of government stimulus. Keynes had the radical idea that throwing money at recessions through aggressive deficit spending would resuscitate flatlined economies- and he wasn?t too particular about where the money was thrown. In the depths of the Depression, he suggested that the Treasury could ?fill old bottles with banknotes, bury them at suitable depths in disused coal mines? then sit back and watch a money-mining boom create jobs and prosperity. ?It would, indeed, be more sensible to build houses and the like, ?he wrote, but ?the above would be better than nothing.?

As President-elect Barack Obama prepares to throw money at the current downturn-a stimulus package starting at about $800 billion, plus the second $350 billion chunk of the financial bailout-we all really do seem to be Keynesians now. Just about every expert agrees that pumping $1 trillion into a moribund economy will rev up the ethereal goods-and-services engine that Keynes called ?aggregate demand? and stimulate at least some shortterm activity, even if it is all wasted on money pits. But Keynes was also right that there would be more sensible ways to spend it. There would also be less sensible ways to spend it. A trillion dollars? worth of bad ideas-sprawl-inducing highways and bridges to nowhere, ethanol plants and pipelines that accelerate global warming, tax breaks for overleveraged McMansion builders and burdensome new long-term federal entitlements-would be worse than mere waste. It would be smarter to buy every American an iPod, a set of Ginsu knives and 600 Subway foot-longs.

It would be smarter still to throw all that money at things we need to do anyway, which is the goal of Obama?s upcoming American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan. It will include a mix of tax cuts, aid to beleaguered state and local governments; and spending to address needs ranging from food stamps to computerized health records to bridge repairs to broadband network to energy-efficiency retrofits, all designed to save or create 3 million to 4 million jobs by the end of 2010. Obama has said speed is his top priority because the faster Washington injects cash into the financial bloodstream, the better it stands to help avert a multiyear slump with double-digit unemployment and deflation. But he also wants to use the stimulus to advance his long-term priorities : reducing energy use and carbon emissions, cutting middle-class taxes, upgrading neglected infrastructure, reining in health-care costs and eventually reducing the budget deficits that exploded under George W. Bush. Obama?s goal is to exploit this crisis in the best sense of the word to start pursuing his vision of a greener, father, more competitive, more sustainable economy.

Unfortunately, while 21st century Washington has demonstrated an impressive ability to spend money quickly, it has yet to prove that it can spend money wisely. And the chum of a 1 with 12 zeros is already creating a feeding frenzy for the ages. Lobbyists for shoe companies, zoos, catfish farmers, mall owners, airlines, public broadcasters, car dealers and everyone else who can afford their retainers are lining up for a piece of the stimulus. States that embarked on raucous spending and tax cuttng sprees when they were flush are begging for bailouts now that they?re broke. And politicians are dusting off their unfunded mobster museums, waterslides and other pet projects for rebranding as shovel-ready infrastructure investments. As Obama?s aides scramble to assemble something effective and transformative as well as politically achievable, they acknowledge the tension between his desires for speed and reform.

1. What, according to Keynes, is the ?aggregate demand? ?
(a) Stimulation of a short-term activity
(b) Goods and Services Sector
(c) Attempting to rev up the sluggish economy
(d) Pumping one trillion dollars into economy

Answer: (b) Goods and Services Sector

2. Which of the following is/are corrective measure(s) as part of the long term priorities of Obama that was an outcome of his predecessor?s regime ?
(1) Countering recession through immediate rescue operations.
(2) Reining the budget deficit.
(3) Creating a more sustainable economy.

(a) (1) & (2) only
(b) (2) & (3) only
(c) (1) & (3) only
(d) None of these

Answer: (d) None of these

3. John M. Keynes was advocate of which of the following suggestions ?
(a) Spending money recklessly during recessions is suicidal
(b) Government stimulus to economy may not help because of red-tapism
(c) Aggressive deficit spending is likely to be fatal for economic meltdown
(d) Exorbitant spending during recessions is likely to boost economy

Answer: (d) Exorbitant spending during recessions is likely to boost economy

4. The author of the passage calls Barack Obama and his team as ?Keynesians? because .
(a) Barack Obama and his team have decided to fil old bottles with banknotes
(b) His team is advising Barack to refrain from Keynes? philosophy
(c) Barack Obama has been reluctant to follow Keynes? philosophy
(d) Building houses has been under the active consideration of Barack Obama and his team

Answer: (a) Barack Obama and his team have decided to fil old bottles with banknotes

5. Which of the following is TRUE about Keynes? philosophy ?
(a) Actual spending money during meltdown is more important than where and on what it is spent
(b) Filling old bottles with banknotes and burying them is an atrocious proposal
(c) Government should be selective in approach for spending money during recession
(d) Creating jobs and prosparity during recessions is almost an impracticable proposal

Answer: (c) Government should be selective in approach for spending money during recession

6. According to the author of the passage, food stamps, bridge repairs, etc. are the projects that .
(a) Do not warrant urgent spending as they have a lower utility value
(b) Need the least investment and priority as compared to building houses for the needy
(c) May not have any favourable impact on attempts to counter recession
(d) None of these

Answer : (d) None of these

7. Obama desires to accelerate the process of pumping money with utmost rapidity as he believes that it would .
(1) Help create reasonably high employment opportunities
(2) Avoid deflation
(3) Inject cash into the already troubled economy

(a) (1) and (2) only
(b) (2) and (3) only
(c) (1) and (3) only
(d) All (1) (2) and (3)

Answer: (d) None of these

8. Obama?s upcoming American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan focuses on which of the following ?
(1) Recovery of all debts from the debtors in a phased manner.
(2) Pumping money very liberally in projects that are mandatory.
(3) Investing money recklessly in any project regardless of its utility.

(a) (1) only
(b) (2) only
(c) (3) only
(d) (2) and (3) only

Answer: (d) (2) and (3) only

9. Highways, bridges, ethanol plants, etc. are considered by the author as .
(a) Reasonably appropriate propositions to spend money on
(b) Tax saving schemes bestowed on builders
(c) Imprudent proposals to waste money on
(d) Measures that affect the environment adversely

Answer: (d) Measures that affect the environment adversely

Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

10. Moribund
(a) Declining
(b) Thriving
(c) Waning
(d) Pessimistic

11. Beleaguered
(a) Stressful
(b) Harassed
(c) Carefree
(d) Uneventful

12. Raucous
(a) Strident
(b) Soft
(c) Rough
(d) Unprecedented